We Practice The 2016 Latest Microsoft 70-417 Exam Questions And Answers

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070-410 exam

QUESTION 96
Your network contains an Active Directory domain named contoso.com. The domain contains a domain controller named DC5. DC5 has a Server Core Installation of Windows Server 2012 R2.
You need to uninstall Active Directory from DC5 manually. Which tool should you use?
A. The Remove-ADComputercmdlet
B. The ntdsutil.exe command
C. The dsamain.exe command
D. The Remove-WindowsFeaturecmdlet

Correct Answer: D Explanation
Explanation/Reference:

QUESTION 97
Your network contains an Active Directory domain named adatum.com. The domain contains three domain controllers. The domain controllers are configured as shown in the following table.

DC3 loses network connectivity due to a hardware failure.
You plan to remove DC3 from the domain.
You log on to DC3.
You need to identify which service location (SRV) records are registered by DC3.
What should you do?

A. Open the %windir%\system32\dns\backup\adatum.com.dns file.
B. Open the %windir%\system32\config\netlogon.dns file.
C. Run ipconfig /displaydns.
D. Run dcdiag /test:dns.

Correct Answer: B Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
Netlogon service creates a log file that contains all the locator resource records and places the log file in
the following location:

References:
QUESTION 98
Your network contains an Active Directory domain named contoso.com. The domain contains a server named Server1. Server1 runs Windows Server 2012 R2.
You need to create 3-TB virtual hard disk (VHD) on Server1.
Which tool should you use?
A. New-StorageSubsytemVirtualDisk
B. New-VirtualDisk
C. Server Manager
D. Computer Management

Correct Answer: B Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
NOT A Share and Storage will only let you create a VHD on a storage pool NOT B Server Manager, can’t
find where to create this. NOT C Is this powershell ? the command should be NEW-VHD

D Computer management is the only valid yet non available answer. I’d be left with C, hoping they’d have
the good powershell command.
Note:
From @L_Ranger, Computer Management is not an option anymore.
Back to New-VirtualDisk
Old explanation : D (Computer management)
Explanation:
For Server 2012:
With the  Server Manager snap-in, you can create and attach a .VHD file directly. Figure A shows the drop-down box
where a.VHD file can be created and attached. Figure A
QUESTION 99
Your network contains two servers named Server1 and Server2 that run Windows Server 2012 R2.
Server1 and Server2 are part of a workgroup.

On Server1 and Server2, you create a local user account named Admin1. You add the account to the local
Administrators group. On both servers, Admin1 has the same password.

You log on to Server1 as Admin1. You open Computer Management and you connect to Server2.

When you attempt to create a scheduled task, view the event logs, and manage the shared folders, you
receive Access Denied messages.
You need to ensure that you can administer Server2 remotely from Server1 by using Computer
Management. What should you configure on Server2?

A. From Local Users and Groups, modify the membership of the Remote Management Users group.
B. From Server Manager, modify the Remote Management setting.
C. From Windows Firewall, modify the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) firewall rule.
D. From Registry Editor, configure the LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicyresgistry value

Correct Answer: D Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 100
Your network contains an Active Directory domain named contoso.com. The domain contains a server named Server1 that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.
On a server named Server2, you perform a Server Core Installation of Windows Server 2012 R2. You join Server2 to the contoso.com domain.
You need to ensure that you can manage Server2 by using the Computer Management console on Server1.
What should you do on Server2?
A. Run sconfig.exe and configure remote management.
B. Run sconfig.exe and configure Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT).
C. Install Windows Management Framework.
D. Install Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT).

Correct Answer: A Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: In Windows Server 2012, you can use the Server Configuration tool (Sconfig.cmd) to configure and manage several common aspects of Server Core installations. You must be a member of the Administrators group to use the tool. Sconfig.cmd is available in the Minimal Server Interface and in Server with a GUI mode.
References:
QUESTION 101
Your network contains an Active Directory domain named contoso.com. The domain contains two servers named Server1 and Server2. Server1 runs Windows Server 2012 R2. 5erver2 runs Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and has the DHCP Server server role installed.
You need to manage DHCP on Server2 by using the DHCP console on Server1.
What should you do first?
A. From the Microsoft Management Console on Server1, add a snap-in.
B. From Server Manager on Server2, enable Windows Remote Management.
C. From Windows PowerShell on Server2, run Enable-PSRemoting.
D. From Server Manager on Server1, install a feature.
Correct Answer: B Explanation

Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 102
Your network contains a server named Server1 that runs Windows Server 2012. Server1 has the Hyper-V server role installed.
Server1 hosts four virtual machines named VM1, VM2, VM3, and VM4. Server1 is configured as shown in the following table.

You install Windows Server 2012 on VM2 by using Windows Deployment Services (WDS). You need to ensure that the next time VM2 restarts, you can connect to the WDS server by using PXE.
Which virtual machine setting should you configure for VM2?
A. NUMA topology
B. Resource control
C. Resource metering
D. Virtual Machine Chimney
E. The VLAN ID
F. Processor Compatibility
G. The startup order
H. Automatic Start Action
I. Integration Services
J. Port mirroring
K. Single-root I/O virtualization

Correct Answer: G Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation:
G. Configure the BIOS of the computer to enable PXE boot, and set the boot order so that it is booting from the network is first.
References:  Exam Ref 70-410, Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012, Chapter 3: Configure Hyper-V, Objective 3.1: Create and Configure virtual machine settings, p. 144 Training Guide: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2012: Chapter
7: Hyper-V Virtualization, Lesson 2: Deploying and configuring virtual machines, p. 335
QUESTION 103
Your network contains an Active Directory forest. The forest contains two domains named contoso.com and corp.contoso.com. All domain controllers run Windows Server 2012 R2 and are configured as global catalog servers.
The corp.contoso.com domain contains a domain controller named DC1.
You need to disable the global catalog on DC1. What should you do?
A. From Active Directory Users and Computers, modify the properties of the DC1 computer account.
B. From Active Directory Administrative Center, modify the properties of the DC1 computer account.
C. From Active Directory Domains and Trusts, modify the properties of the corp.contoso.com domain.
D. From Active Directory Sites and Services, modify the NTDS Settings of the DC1 server object.

Correct Answer: D Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Explanation: When you navigate your way to the Active Directory Sites and Services\Sites\SiteName\Servers then in the details pane, right-click NTDS Settings of the selected server object, and then click Properties. There will you get access to the Global Catalog check box to add the global catalog, or clear the check box to remove the global catalog.
References:

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Most Popular Cisco 400-101 Vce, 400-101 Real Exam Online

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QUESTION 26
Which Cisco IOS XE process administers routing and forwarding?
A. Forwarding manager
B. Interface manager
C. Cisco IOS
D. Host manager

Correct Answer: C Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Some of the processes are listed in the table below:

Software_Packaging_Architecture.html
QUESTION 27
Which circumstance can cause packet loss due to a microburst?
A. slow convergence
B. a blocked spanning-tree port
C. process switching
D. insufficient buffers

Correct Answer: D Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Micro-bursting is a phenomenon where rapid bursts of data packets are sent in quick succession, leading to periods of full line-rate transmission that can overflow packet buffers of the network stack, both in network endpoints and routers and switches inside the network. Symptoms of micro bursts will manifest in the form of ignores and/ or overruns (also shown as accumulated in “input error” counter within show interface output). This is indicative of receive ring and corresponding packet buffer being overwhelmed due to data bursts coming in over extremely short period of time (microseconds).

QUESTION 28
Which two statements about proxy ARP are true? (Choose two.)
A. It is supported on networks without ARP.
B. It allows machines to spoof packets.
C. It must be used on a network with the host on a different subnet.
D. It requires larger ARP tables.
E. It reduces the amount of ARP traffic.

Correct Answer: BD Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
Disadvantages of Proxy ARP
Hosts have no idea of the physical details of their network and assume it to be a flat network in which they can reach any destination simply by sending an ARP
request. But using ARP for everything has disadvantages. These are some of the disadvantages:
It increases the amount of ARP traffic on your segment.
Hosts need larger ARP tables in order to handle IP-to-MAC address mappings.

Security can be undermined. A machine can claim to be another in order to intercept packets, an act called “spoofing.”

It does not work for networks that do not use ARP for address resolution.

It does not generalize to all network topologies. For example, more than one router that connects two physical networks.
QUESTION 29
Refer to the exhibit.

Routers R1 and R2 are configured as shown, and traffic from R1 fails to reach host 209.165.201.254. Which action can you take to correct the problem?
A. Ensure that R2 has a default route in its routing table.
B. Change the OSPF area type on R1 and R2.
C. Edit the router configurations so that address 209.165.201.254 is a routable address.
D. Remove the default-information originate command from the OSPF configuration of R2. Correct Answer: A

Explanation Explanation/Reference:
Not sure that any of these answers are correct, it appears that this configuration is valid for reaching that one specific host IP. Answer A does have a route to that host so it would not need a default route to get to it. Choice B is incorrect as the area types have nothing to do with this. C is incorrect as that IP address is routable, and D is needed so that R1 will have a default route advertised to it from R2 so that it can reach this destination.

400-101 vce
QUESTION 30
Which service is disabled by the no service tcp-small-servers command?
A. the finger service
B. the Telnet service
C. the Maintenance Operation Protocol service
D. the chargen service

Correct Answer: D Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
The TCP small servers are:
Echo: Echoes back whatever you type through the telnet x.x.x.x echo command.
Chargen: Generates a stream of ASCII data. Use the telnet x.x.x.x chargen command.

DiscarD. Throws away whatever you type. Use the telnet x.x.x.x discard command.

DaytimE. Returns system date and time, if it is correct. It is correct if you run Network Time Protocol (NTP), or have set the date and time manually from the

exec level. Use the telnet x.x.x.x daytime command.

QUESTION 31
Which two Cisco Express Forwarding tables are located in the data plane? (Choose two.)
A. the forwarding information base
B. the label forwarding information base
C. the IP routing table
D. the label information table
E. the adjacency table

Correct Answer: AB Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
The control plane runs protocols such as OSPF, BGP, STP, LDP. These protocols are needed so that routers and switches know how to forward packets and
frames.
The data plane is where the actual forwarding takes place. The data plane is populated based on the protocols running in the control plane. The Forwarding
Information Base (FIB) is used for IP traffic and the Label FIB is used for MPLS.
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Add, remove, and resize logical volumes

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Diagnose and correct networking service problems where SELinux contexts are interfering with proper operation

7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Configuring a Network Installation Configuring Partitions, RAID, and LVM The CUPS Printing System Automating System Administration: cron and at Network Authentication Configuration: NIS and LDAP Filesystem Management and the Automounter User Account Management, The Basic User Environment, Setting Up and Managing Disk Quotas Creating and Maintaining Special Groups The Red Hat Package Manager, More RPM Commands New Kernels, the Easy Way Adding and Removing RPM Packages with yum and pirut, Managing Updates with Pup and the Red Hat Network (RHN) New Kernels, the Easy Way; Kernel Sources Configuring Partitions, 2 2 7 7 6

329, 443, 493, 557, 585, 613, 649, 691

*

RHCT Installation and Configuration Skills Perform network OS installation Implement a custom partitioning scheme Configure printing Configure the scheduling of tasks using cron and at Attach system to a network directory service, such as NIS or LDAP Configure autofs Add and manage users, groups, and quotas, and File Access Control Lists Configure filesystem permissions for collaboration Install and update packages using rpm Properly update the kernel package Configure the system to update/install packages from remote repositories using yum or pup Modify the system boot loader Implement software RAID at install-

81 96 341 354 313

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4 6

200 273, 285, 290 301 222, 227 388 238, 234

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6 5

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8 5

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388, 392 96, 410

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Partitioning: Software RAID Use /proc/sys and sysctl to modify and set kernel runtime parameters Use scripting to automate system maintenance tasks RHCE Installation and Configuration Skills For HTTP/HTTPS, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For SMB, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For NFS, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For FTP, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For Web proxy, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For SMTP, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For IMAP/IMAPS/POP3, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and userbased security For SSH, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security For DNS (caching name server, slave name server), install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and userbased security For NTP, install, configure SELinux support, configure to start on reboot for basic operation and host- and user-based security Configure hands-free installation using Kickstart Implement logical volumes at install-time Use iptables to implement packet filtering and/or NAT The Apache Web Server, Virtual Hosts, Apache Access Configuration Samba Services The Basics of the Kernel Automating System Administration: cron and at 9 8 7 444, 466, 456 516 377 329 * * *

10

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Configuring a Network File System (NFS) Server, Client-side NFS The File Transfer Protocol and vsFTPd

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494, 509

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Electronic Mail (entire chapter)

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Chapter 1: RHCE Prerequisites
Overview
The Red Hat exams are an advanced challenge. As both the RHCE and RHCT courses specify a number of prerequisite skills, this book assumes that you know some basics about Linux. This chapter covers the prerequisite topics for Red Hat’s RH300 course in a minimum of detail, with references to other books and sources for more information. It also covers the related prerequisites as defined in the Red Hat Exam Prep guide. Unlike those in other chapters and other books in this series, the questions in this chapter include a number of “zingers” that go beyond the chapter’s content. These questions will help determine whether you have the prerequisite skills necessary to handle the remaining chapters. If you’re serious about the RHCE and RHCT exams, this chapter should be just a review. In fact, for any user serious about Linux, this chapter should be trivial. Linux gurus should recognize that I’ve “oversimplified” a number of explanations; my intention is to keep this chapter as short as possible. However, it is okay if you do not feel comfortable with a few topics in this chapter. In fact, it’s quite natural that many experienced Linux administrators don’t use every one of the prerequisite topics in their everyday work. Many candidates are able to fill in the gaps in their knowledge with some self-study and practice. If you’re new to Linux or Unix, this chapter will not be enough for you. It’s not possible to provide sufficient detail, at least in a way that can be understood by newcomers to Linux and other Unix-based operating systems. If, after reading this chapter, you find gaps in your knowledge, refer to one of the following guides:

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 documentation guides, available online from  . Hacking Linux Exposed, Third Edition: Linux Security Secrets and Solutions, by Casarik, Hatch, Lee, and Kurtz, gives you a detailed look at how to secure your Linux system and networks in every possible way. Mastering Fedora Core 5, by Michael Jang, covers the distribution that Red Hat used as one of the testbeds for RHEL 5.

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CheckPoint.156-310.2009-2-26.by.Ramon.398q

http://www.examcoop.com/156-310.html

Exam A
QUESTION 1
Which of the following statements about IKE Encryption are TRUE? (Choose three )
A. The final packet size is increased after it is encrypted.
B. TCP and IP headers are encrypted, along with the payload.
C. IKE uses in-place encryption.
D. IKE can use the FWZ1 encryption algorithm.
E. IKE uses tunneling encryption.

Correct Answer: ABE
QUESTION 2
When upgrading a configuration to NG with Application Intelligence: (Choose the FALSE answer)
A. Upgrade the SmartConsole.
B. Upgrade each module’s version in SmartDashboard manually.
C. Upgrade the VPN-1/Firewall-1 Enforcement Modules.
D. Copy $FWDIR/state from one version of VPN-1/FireWall-1 to another version of VPN-1/FireWall-1.
E. Upgrade the SmartCenter server. The version is set during the upgrade.

Correct Answer: D
QUESTION 3
When you upgrade VPN-1/FireWall-1, what components are carried over to the new version? (Choose two)
A. Licenses
B. VPN-1/FireWall-1 database
C. OPSEC database
D. Backward Compatibility
E. Rule Base

Correct Answer: AB
QUESTION 4
Which of the following is NOT a function of the Internal Certificate Authority (ICA)?
A. Provides certificates for users and Security Administrators.
B. Generated certificates for HTTPS Web server.
C. Establishes SIC between OPSEC applications and Check Point products.
D. Authentications SecureClient traffic to Enforcement Modules for VPNs.
E. Establishes SIC between Check Point products.

Correct Answer: B
QUESTION 5
Which of the following FTP Content Security settings prevents internal users from sending corporate files to external FTP Servers, while allowing users to retrieve files?
A. Use an FTP resource, and enable the GET and PUT methods.
B. Use an FTP resource and enable the GET method.
C. Use an FTP resource and enable the PUT method.
D. Block FTP_PASV.
E. Block all FTP traffic.

Correct Answer: B
QUESTION 6
All of the following are steps for implementing UFP, EXCEPT:
A. While the UFP Server is analyzing the requests, the Enforcement Module HTTP Proxy Server initiates a request to the destination. The HTTP Proxy server then waits for a response from the UFP Server before allowing the request.
B. The client invokes a connection through the VPN-1/FireWall-1 Enforcement Module.
C. The Content Server inspects the URLs and returns the validation result message to the Enforcement Module.
D. The Enforcement Module takes the action defined in the Rule Base for the resource.
E. The Security Server uses UFP to send the URL to a third-party UFP Server categorization.

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 7

The _______ algorithm determines the load of each physical server and requires a Load Measuring Agent be installed on each server.
A. Server Load
B. Server Relay
C. Round Robin
D. Domain
E. Round Trip

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 8
Which of the following is NOT a method of Load Balancing with VPN-1/FireWall-1?
A. Domain Load Balancing
B. Round Robin
C. Server Load
D. Round Trip
E. Quantum Load Balancing

Correct Answer: E
QUESTION 9
Which of the following does NOT require definition for a Voice over IP (VoIP) Domain SIP object?
A. SIP Proxy
B. IP Address Range
C. VoIP Gateway
D. Related Endpoint Domain
E. Name

Correct Answer: A
QUESTION 10
Which of the following is NOT a valid VPN configuration option available in the VPN Manager of the Simplified Rule Base?
A. Point-to-Point
B. Mesh
C. Remote Access
D. Star with Meshed Center
E. Star

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Cisco.642-691.2011-11-22.by.Piers.99q

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Exam A
QUESTION 1
For which purpose is the command mpls ldp maxhops used?
A. In large ATM-MPLS networks, the LFIB can become too large and it may be necessary to limit the maximum diameter of the MPLS LSPs.
B. Because downstream-on-demand label allocation uses hop count to control loop detection, it maybe necessary to limit the maximum diameter of the MPLS network.
C. Because end-to-end delay can cause problems with some voice applications, it may be necessary to limit the maximum diameter of the MPLS network.
D. When interconnecting large frame mode MPLS and cell mode networks it may be necessary to limit the maximum network diameter to prevent forwarding loops.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 2
Refer to the diagram. What problem can be caused by the second P router summarizing the loopback address of the egress PE router?

A. The first P router will be faced with a VPN label which it does not understand.
B. The second P router will be faced with a VPN label which it does not understand.
C. The egress PE router will not be able to establish a label switch path (LSP) to the ingress PE router.
D. A label switch path (LSP) will be established from the ingress PE router to the egress PE router, an event that is not desirable.
E. The ingress PE router will not be able to receive the VPN label from the egress PE router via MP-IBGP.

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference: QUESTION 3
In a central services topology, which routes do client VRFs contain?
A. routes from the client site, but not from the server site
B. routes from the server site, but not from the client site
C. routes from both the client site and the server site
D. only EBGP routes from either the client site or the server site

Correct Answer: C Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 4
On a dedicated subinterface implementation, PE-2 must establish an address-family vrf IPv4 BGP neighbor relationship with which router?

A. CE-1
B. CE-2
C. PE-1
D. PE-IG
E. CE-1 and CE-2
F. PE-1 and PE-IG

Correct Answer: B Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 5
What are three drawbacks of a peer-to-peer VPN using a shared provider edge (PE) router? (Choose three.)
A. A full mesh of virtual circuits is required between the customer sites.
B. All the customers have to share a common IP address space.
C. Optimal routing between customer sites cannot be guaranteed.
D. The shared PE router has to know all routes for all customers.
E. Packet filters are required on the PE routers.

Correct Answer: BDE Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 6
Which two of the following statements regarding LDP are true? (Choose two.)
A. LDP can also be used between nonadjacent routers using multicast LDP hello messages.
B. LDP does not require periodic hello messages once the LDP session has been established between the LDP peers.
C. LDP hello messages use TCP packets with a destination port number of 646.
D. Multiple sessions can be established between a pair of LSRs if they use multiple label spaces.
E. Per-platform label space can be identified by a label space ID of 0 in the LDP identifier field.

Correct Answer: DE Section: (none) Explanation
Explanation/Reference:
QUESTION 7
Refer to the exhibit. Which two of the following statements about the MPLS configurations are true? (Choose two.)

A. The VPI range being configured is the default VPI range.
B. The router is missing the mpls label protocol ldp configuration command on its ATM 0/0.1 subinterface to make it an LC-ATM enabled subinterface.
C. There is a problem with the configurations because the control VC should be set to 0 32 instead.
D. The ATM switch is using VC merge since VC merge is enabled by default.
E. For MPLS label allocations, both VPI 6 and 7 can be used.

Correct Answer: DE Section: (none) Explanation
QUESTION 8
What does the following command accomplish? sanjose#clear ip bgp 10.1.1.1 in prefix-filter
A. The sanjose router will perform an outbound soft reconfig to the 10.1.1.1 neighbor.
B. The sanjose router will send out the ORF prefix-list so that a new route refresh will be received from the
1.1.1 neighbor.
C. The 10.1.1.1 router will perform an inbound soft reconfig on the updates from the sanjose neighbor.
D. The 10.1.1.1 router will send out the ORF prefix-list so that a new route refresh will be received from the sanjose neighbor.
E. The bgp session between the sanjose and the 10.1.1.1 router will be reset so that all the new bgp updates from the 10.1.1.1 router can be processed by the inbound prefix-list at the sanjose router.
F.     The bgp session between the sanjose and the 10.1.1.1 router will be reset so that all the new bgp updates from the sanjose router can be processed by the inbound prefix-list at the 10.1.1.1 router.

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(Seryer)

. 2.2.

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53

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54

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56

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,       .            .       .       ,  Custom     .       ,    .        .          ,     ,         ,   .   ,      ,  Standard VGA 640×480 —    .  ,  Linux Red Hat 6    AGP.       ,     Red Hat 7.x (8.x)       XFree86     .   ,   AGP  ,    PCI.   !     —  .

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Linux Mandrake   ,   ,      Pentium
32

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64

650

VESA 2.0

2048   VESA 2.0

59

Download Cisco 500-210 Exam PDF,Free Download 500-210 Cisco Braindumps

500-210
Neil R. Wyler Technical Editor Trent Fausett Kevin Fletcher Patrick Foxhoven Mark J. Lucas Kevin Miller Kevin Peterson Brad Woodberg

Technical Editor and Contributing Author
Neil R. Wyler ( JNCIA-SSL, JNCIS-FWV, JNCIS-M) is 500-210 an information security engineer and researcher located on the Wasatch Front in Utah. He is currently doing contract work for Juniper Networks, working with the company’s Security Products Group. Neil is a staff member of the Black Hat Security Briefings and Def Con hacker conference. He has spoken at numerous security conferences and been the subject of various online, print, film, and television interviews regarding different areas of information security. He was the lead author and technical editor of Aggressive Network Self-Defense (Syngress, ISBN: 1-931836-20-5) and coauthor of Configuring Juniper Networks NetScreen & SSG Firewalls (Syngress, ISBN: 1-59749-118-7).

Contributors
Trent Fausett ( JNCIA-FWV, JNCIA-SSL) is a network engineer with Valcom (the longest standing Juniper reseller) in Salt Lake City, UT. He was previously doing contract work for Juniper Networks for the SSL VPN primary Technical Assistance Center. He did extensive work with improving the Juniper SSL VPN knowledge base and helped publish the SSL VPN resolution guides available on the Juniper support site today. He is currently finishing up a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science. Kevin Fletcher (CISSP) works for Juniper Networks in technical marketing and was formerly a product manager at Neoteris, the inventor of the first SSL VPN appliance. He has spent the last several years building and evangelizing SSL VPNs and works closely with organizations all over the world as they design and deploy their next-generation remote access control solutions. Kevin’s primary areas of expertise include HTTP, SSL/TLS, PKI, AAA, network management,Web security, and overall solution design. He has over 10 years’ network management and security experience and holds a bachelor’s degree from Purdue University in Telecommunications Networking. Patrick Foxhoven ( JNCIS-FWV, JNCIA-IDP, JNCIA-SSL, ECDP, MCP+I, CCNA) is the chief information officer of CentraComm Communications, a leading managed security service provider (MSSP) and Juniper Networks Elite J-Partner based in Findlay, OH. Patrick has over 12 years of diverse professional experience in telecommunications, managed security, and mission-critical networking fields encompassing a unique mix of multisite networking, security, hosting, wireless, and consulting strategies for solutions aimed at medium-sized through Fortune 500 accounts. Prior to joining CentraComm, Patrick served as vice president of a regional Internet service provider with five physical network points of presence in Ohio serving over 2,500 customers. He has hands-on proficiency and multiple industry certifications. Mark J. Lucas (MCSE and GIAC Certified Windows Security Administrator) is a senior system administrator at the California Institute of Technology. Mark is responsible for the design, implementation, and security of high-availability systems such as Microsoft Exchange servers,VMWare ESX hosted servers, and various licensing servers. He is also responsible for the firewalls protecting these systems. Mark has been in the IT industry for 10 years. Mark lives in Tujunga, CA, with his wife, Beth, and the furry, four-legged children, Aldo, Cali, Chuey, and Emma. Kevin Miller ( JNCIA-SSL, CCSP, CCNP, CCDP, MCSE) is a network architect with Herman Miller Inc., an international office furniture manufacturer. From his home office in Huntsville, AL, he provides network design, configuration, and support services

iii

throughout Herman Miller’s network. His specialties include Juniper’s SSL concentrators and Cisco routers, switches, firewalls, wireless and Web content services. Kevin’s background includes significant experience with both security and quality-of-service technology. Kevin Peterson (CISSP, JNCIA-SSL) is an SSL VPN specialist for the eastern region (U.S.) with Juniper Networks and has been working with the Juniper SSL VPN for over four years. Kevin’s background includes positions as a security product manager and a senior security architect at McKesson Information Solutions, a support engineer at Microsoft, and an avionic systems technician with the United States Air Force Special Operations Command in England. He has also authored multiple security white papers and presented at notable security conferences, including the RSA Security Conference, HIPAA Summit, The Institute for Applied Network Security, and the Healthcare Information Management Systems Society (HIMSS). Prior system and security certifications include MSCE, MCP+I, MCT, CNA, CCNA and GSEC. Kevin resides in Alpharetta, GA, with his family, Patricia, Siobhan, and Conor. Brad Woodberg ( JNCIS-FWV, JNCIS-M, JNCIA-IDP, JNCIA-SSL, JNCIA-UAC, Packeteer Expert, CCNP) is a security consultant at Networks Group Inc. in Brighton, MI. At Networks Group his primary focus is designing and implementing security solutions for clients ranging from small businesses to Fortune 500 companies. His main areas of expertise include network perimeter security, intrusion prevention, security analysis, and network infrastructure. Outside of work he has a great interest in proof-of-concept vulnerability analysis, open source integration/development, and computer architecture. Brad currently holds a Computer Engineering bachelor’s degree from Michigan State University and participates with local security organizations; he also mentors and gives lectures to students interested in the computer network field. He was a contributing author to Configuring Juniper Networks NetScreen & SSG Firewalls (ISBN: 1-597491187), published by Syngress Publishing.

iv

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Chapter 1 Defining a Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Why Have Different Types of Firewalls? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Physical Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Back to Basics: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 TCP/IP Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Firewall Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Application Proxy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Pros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Packet Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Stateful Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Chapter 2 Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Initial CLI Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 IVE Console Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Initial Web Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Accessing the IVE through the WebUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Configuring Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Configuring Licensing on the IVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Network Settings in the AdminUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Generating a CSR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Other Certificates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Security and System Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 System Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Chapter 3 Realms, Roles, and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Introducing Realms, Roles, and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Configuring Realms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Selecting and Configuring General Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Selecting and Configuring Authentication Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Selecting and Configuring Role Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Optimizing User Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Admin Realms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Configuring Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 User Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 General Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Standard Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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vi

Contents
Meeting Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Admin Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuring Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introducing Resource Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introducing Resource Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 105 106 107 112 113 113 116

Chapter 4 Authentication Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Local Authentication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 LDAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 NIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 ACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 AD/NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Anonymous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 SiteMinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 SAML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Chapter 5 Secure Application Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Why Use SAM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Feature Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Chapter Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Secure Application Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 SAM Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 How to Deploy the SAM Applet to Connecting Computers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Secure Application Manager Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Enabling SAM and Configuring Role Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Configuring SAM on a Role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Configuring SAM Resource Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Configuring SAM Resource Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Secure Application Manager User Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Secure Application Manager Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Chapter 6 Terminal Services and Citrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Why Use the Juniper Citrix Terminal Services Proxy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Feature Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Chapter Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Terminal Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Terminal Services Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Configuring Terminal Services Resource Policies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Configuring Terminal Services Resource Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Configuring Terminal Services and Citrix Using a Hosted Java Applet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Terminal Services User Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Contents
Citrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citrix Client Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citrix Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citrix User Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Launching Terminal Services 500-210 hp Sessions and Java Applets from an External Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Services and Citrix Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IVE-Side Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solutions Fast Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequently Asked Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 205 207 210 211 212 213 217 217 219

1z0-040 can haz IPMI ? Ou comment gérer l’aspect matériel de ses serveurs

L 19275

118 –

F: 6,50

RD

France Métro:

TOM Surface:

POL. A: 1400 XPF

6,50  – DOM: 7,00  950 XPF 7,50

BEUPORICONT:

CH: 13,8 CHF – CAN: 13 1Z0-040 SCAD

1-

TUNtSIE : 8,80 TND MAR: 75 MAD

En panne

os solutions professionnelles de redondance et de clustering, peuvent vous aider à élaborer un plan de reprise d’activité efficace …

‘.if- The Go Open Expert Café

‘.I.e’ Nordic Perl Workshop 2009/ Go Open 2009

News

Kernel ‘.i’:’ Nouveautés du noyau 2.6.30
Critique: Algorithmique Raisonner pour concevoir»

«

SysAdmin
1

can haz IPMI ? Ou comment gérer l’aspect matériel de ses serveurs

Gestion de sources distribuée avec Mercurial

NetAdmin

,.”.1 À la découverte de LemonLDAP::NG

‘.Iif- OpenVPN à travers un proxy restrictif
Repères ‘.’l* Processus de publication chez Debian et Ubuntu ‘.;:t.1 Parce qu’y’en a marre

‘.l:,_ NetBSD a enfin son APT: Un pkgin sans glace pour la 6 ‘.i»’ Petite histoire du portage d’un logiciel libre sur HP-UX
Abonnement
p.66,85,86 Bons d’abonnement et de commande

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un na! puroponubIc:des tt:rtl’I.,Ulurnationlct photOfqW lui IO!I.I conunwtiqlJbparlcwtlUlalra.U n toWeOlJ partie1IedesanickspubUts dans Linux?l.bguine FranoeCll intc:miteunsacconl«riloeb.1Oci DimlOud EditiOOJ.Saufaa:onJ pIItI’ticuUa-, les manUJCrib,phorOi CI dessin,.drtSSb l Linux Magazine FI’2I\oe, publib ou non, ne JOni ni rmd ni rcnYO)’b. La indicariOl\f de prix ct d’adreucs figurant d;w Les paga: r6:bcti0nnd1es IOnt donnfcs i hm d’information.wu: aUOJn but pub1icir.ûre. Toufrf ln ma.rquo:s citicl dan) ce num600 IOnl dé:potéa par leu! proprimm: rapectil. ToUiIcs klgoe reprbmln mM k magazine ,ont 1.1 proprié de leur ‘fI.n1 droit n:tp«bÎ.

Bodor

QO open u

2009

· Sébastien

Aperghis-Tramoni

Jeudi 16 avri l
anglais pour s’excuser de ce fait. Ce n’est que par la suite qu’on m’expliquera que la seconde femme qui avait succédé à la première au micro était une ministre, plus précisément Heidi Grande Reys, ministre de l’Administration et de la Réforme du Gouvernement. Problème d’organisation, les détails sur le salon ne seront donnés qu’après (alors que je me serai déjà éclipsé pour écouter Larry Wall). Cela m’aura néanmoins permis de voir la grande salle et son écran géant affichant une belle liste de sponsors.

Détail amusant, cette double conférence est organisée dans le bâtiment du Sosialistisk Venstreparti (Parti socialiste de gauche), et, plus précisément, dans un théâtre pour la partie Go Open, et dans des salles de conférence au 1 1 e et 1 2e étages du bâtiment pour la partie Nordic Perl Workshop. On ne pouvait pas traîner longtemps en fin d’après-midi, car avaient lieu le soir des représentations de la pièce de théâtre Mamma mia !

Larry Wall – The Future of Laziness, Impatience and Hubris
Salve Nielsen ouvre la partie Perl de cette conférence dans un restaurant en face du théâtre, où une partie de la salle est aménagée pour cela. Larry commence comme souvent avec des généralités qu’il s’amuse à détourner, tel le modèle en cascade. Il trouve que ce dernier avec les nombreux retours, en particulier si on ajoute de l’XP, ressemble à une pelote de laine. Comment savoir si on a terminé? Larry

Il

Ope n i ng togethe r with G o Open

L’ouverture de Go O p e n se déroule en norvégien, avec seulement une phrase en

compare avec des états d’énergie: c’est quand on atteint un minimum. Mais, pour passer d’un minimum local à un autre minimum, inférieur, cela demande de l’énergie. . . ou un tunnel quantique.

et les exceptions ont été fusionnés puisqu’il s’agit à la base de la même chose, ne différant que dans la poursuite ou l’arrêt du programme. Les opérateurs ont été rationalisés, mais s’il y en a une

Il rappelle le pourquoi de Perl 6 : hormis une longue liste de défauts qu’il fait défiler, Perl 5 est parfait 🙂 3 6 1 RFC avaient été recueillies en 2000. Très difficile de répondre à tout ce qui été demandé, autant tout changer. Le but de Perl 6 est d’être «the Martha Stewart of languages
»;

grande quantité, et même encore plus avec les combinaisons de méta-opérateurs, le tout suit une certaine logique, qu’on retrouve dans la table périodique des opérateurs assemblés par Mark Lentczner. Dans les nouveautés, un peu pêle-mêle: les blocs peuvent maintenant prendre plusieurs arguments; le support objet est augmenté des traits (vérifiés à la compilation) et des

ne pas essayer d’être meilleur que les autres, mais d’être plus souple, plus facilement adaptable. Il montre sro. pm (le fichier qui décrit la syntaxe standard de Perl 6) et la facilité pour modifier et faire muter le langage. On peut facilement concevoir un

use COBOL ou n’importe quoi d’autre, tout

n’étant plus finalement que des DSL ( Domain -Specifie

mixins à la Ruby (vérifiés à l’exécution) ; l’opérateur smart ma tch –; les méta-opérateurs; les junctions ; les feeds, comparables aux tubes Unix (pipes), mais au sein du langage
(et bidirectionnel).

Lan gua ge).
Le méta-méta-méta-but de Perl 6 est

– O f u n, c’est-à-dire

rester amusant. Cela n’est pas toujours évident, et Larry indique que, dans l’édition japonaise de Pro grammin g Perl, on trouve une note à côté du slogan « lazyness, impatience,

h ubris » signalant qu’il s’agit d’un trait d’humour 🙂

Juste après le déjeuner (très tôt, à seulement 11h15 ! ), Jonathan complète la présentation assez générale de Larry par une présentation plus en détail de Perl 6. Il rappelle que Perl 6 est défini par une spécification sous
opérateur de l i ste any ( S a , S b , Sc) a l l ( S a , S b , Sc) one ( S a , Sb, Sc) none ( Sa , Sb, Sc) if Sx = 11213 { . . , } 112 t 4=5 1 6

opérateur i nfixe Sa 1 Sb 1 Sc Sa & Sb & Sc Sa $b Sc
· ·

Variables. Le sigil fait maintenant partie du nom de la
variable, et définit un genre de contrat d’interface.

·

Boucles. Les boucles de parcours s’appuient sur les arguments de bloc et s’écrivent maintenant:
for %ages . kv -> Sname , Sage { . . . }

# vrai s i $x vaut l, 2 ou 3

Les boucles de style C s’écrivent quant à elles ainsi:

Quand on passe une jonction à une fonction qui ne sait gérer que des scalaires normaux, cette fonction est appelée autant de fois qu’il y a de valeurs dans la jonction, et les résultats sont recombinés en une jonction .
·

l oop ( S i = 0 ; Si < 10; Si++) { . . . } l oop { . . . } # boucl e infi n i e
·

Chaînage d e conditions. O n peut fusionner plusieurs
conditions en une seule :

M éta-opérateurs. Le méta-opérateur de réduction [.. ] prend un opérateur et un tableau, et agit comme
si l’opérateur était entre tous les éléments.

if 1 <= S rol l l
·

=

Srol l 2 <= 6 { . . . }

Paramètres. Les tableaux et hashes sont maintenant
correctement passés aux fonctions, les paramètres peuvent être nommés et accepter des valeurs par défaut.

Ssum = [t] Ova l ue s ; $tact = [ * ] = 1 . . 10 ;

# somme des v a l eurs # factoriel l e de 10

Les hyper-opérateurs ” .. ” permettent d’exécuter l’opérateur sur chaque élément des listes en argument. Les listes doivent avoir la même taille, sauf si on dirige une des pointes vers l’extérieur.

sub substr ( Sstr, Sfrom = 0 , S l en = InO { . . . } # Sfrom vaut par défaut 0, et S l en l ‘ infi ni sub formalize ( $text ! , : Scase, : Sjustify ) { . . . } # Stext est un paramètre pos i ti onnel obl igatoi re # Scase et Sjust i fy sont des paramètres nommés optionnel s
·

Objets. À peu près tout en Perl 6 peut être manipulé
comme un objet (autoboxin g) . Les méthodes se définissent maintenant avec le mot-clé traditionnel courant par le mot-clé

( l , 2 , 3) “t” ( 2 , 4 , 6 ) ; ( l , 2 ) “t” m, 20) “*” ( 2 , 3 ) -” ( l , 2, 3 ) ; Oarray °t=” 42 ; $1 eft ‘*” Sri ght;

# # # # #

(3, 6, 9) (21 , 62) ( – l , -2, -3) ajoute 42 à chaque él ément ça marche aussi

method, qui est comme le

sub, mais permet en plus d’accéder à l’objet self.

Le méta-opérateur croix X réalise un produit cartésien des éléments en arguments. Il produit toutes les permutations possibles et applique l’opérateur entre les paires d’éléments obtenues.

·

Types. La méthode. WHAT peut être invoquée sur 1z0-040 pdf n’importe
quoi, et indique quel est le type du bidule.

4 2 . WHAT

=

Int

“beer” . WHAT

=

Str

<a b> x- <1 2> ; l , 2 X* 3, 4 ;

# <al a2 bl b2> # 3,4,6,8

CompTIA A+. JK0-012 Certification All-in-One Exam Guide, Sixth Edition

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Mike Meyers, lovingly called the ※AlphaGeek§ by those who know him, is the industry*s leading authority on A+ Certification. He is the president and co-founder of Total Sem-inars, LLC, a provider of PC and network repair seminars, books, videos, and course-ware for  JK0-012  thousands of organizations throughout the world. Mike has been involved in the computer and network repair industry since 1977 as a technician, instructor, au-thor, consultant, and speaker. Author of numerous popular PC books and videos, Mike is also the series editor for the highly successful Mike Meyers* Certification Passport series, the Mike Meyers* Computer Skills series, and the Mike Meyers* Guide to series, all published by McGraw-Hill/Osborne.
ALL
IN

ONE
CompTIA A+.
Certification

EXAM GUIDE
Sixth Edition

Mike Meyers

New York . Chicago . San Francisco . Lisbon
London . Madrid . Mexico City . Milan . New Delhi
San Juan . Seoul . Singapore . Sydney . Toronto
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McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from CompTIA. This publication and CD-ROM may be used in assisting students to prepare for the CompTIA A+ exams. Neither CompTIA nor McGraw-Hill warrant that use of this publication and CD-ROM will ensure passing any exam. CompTIA and CompTIA A+ are registered trademarks of CompTIA in the United States and/or other countries.
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CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum
The logo of the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum (CAQC) program and the status of this or other training material as ※Authorized§ under the CompTIA Authorized Quality Curriculum program signifies that, in CompTIA*s opinion, such training mate-rial covers the content of CompTIA*s related certification exam.
The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA A+ exams cov-ering CompTIA certification objectives that were current as of November 2006.
CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guarantee concerning the success of persons using any such ※Authorized§ or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam.

How to Become CompTIA Certified:
This training material can help you prepare for and pass a related CompTIA certifica-tion exam or exams. In order to achieve CompTIA certification, you must register for and pass a CompTIA certification exam or exams.
In order to become CompTIA certified, you must:
1.
Select a certification exam provider. For more information please visit http:// www.comptia.org/certification/general_information/exam_locations.aspx

2.
Register for and schedule a time to take the CompTIA certification exam(s) at a convenient location.

3.
Read and sign the Candidate Agreement, which will be presented at the time of the exam(s). The text of the Candidate Agreement can be found at http://www .comptia.org/certification/general_information/candidate_agreement.aspx

4.
Take and pass the CompTIA certification exam(s).
For more information about CompTIA*s certifications, such as its industry accep-tance, benefits or program news, please visit www.comptia.org/certification.
CompTIA is a not-for-profit information technology (IT) trade association. Comp-TIA*s certifications are designed by subject matter experts from across the IT industry. Each CompTIA certification is vendor-neutral, covers multiple technologies and re-quires demonstration of skills and knowledge widely sought after by the IT industry.
To contact CompTIA with any questions or comments, please call
(1) (630) 678 8300 or email [email protected]
I dedicate this book to Tiffany JaAda Roosa, the quiet eye of serenity around which the Mike vortex whirls.

〞Mike Meyers

CONTENTS AT A GLANCE

Chapter The Path of the PC Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chpater The Visible PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Chapter Microprocessors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Chapter RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter BIOS and CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Chapter Expansion Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Chapter Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Chapter Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Chapter Hard Drive Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Chapter Implementing Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Chapter Removable Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Chapter Installing and Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Chapter Understanding Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 Chapter Working with the Command-Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Chapter Maintaining and Troubleshooting Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Chaptre Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Chapter Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Chapter Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Chapter Portable Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 Chapter Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867 Chapter Local Area Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905 Chapter The Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Chapter Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
Chapter 24 The Complete PC Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087
Appendix A Mapping to the CompTIA A+ Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 CompTIA A+ Essentials Objectives Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 CompTIA A+ 220-602 (IT Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113 CompTIA A+ 220-603 (Help Desk Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . 1116 CompTIA A+ 220-604 (Depot Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . . . . 1118
Appendix B About the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125

CONTENTS

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Chapter 1 The Path of the PC Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Importance of Skill in Managing and Troubleshooting PCs . . . . . 1 The Concept of Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Importance of CompTIA A+ Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 What Is CompTIA A+ Certification? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Who Is CompTIA? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The Path to Other Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 How Do I Become CompTIA A+ Certified? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Basic Exam Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Help! Which Exam Should I Take? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Help! What Chapters Cover the Help Desk and Depot Technician Exams? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 How Do I Take the Exams? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 How Much Does the Exam Cost? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 How to Pass the CompTIA A+ Exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Historical/Conceptual 15
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Chpater 2 The Visible PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Historical/Conceptual 22
How the PC Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 The Art of the PC Technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Tools of the Trade and ESD Avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Tools of the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Essentials 27
Avoiding Electrostatic Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Anti-static Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Complete PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 External Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Devices and Their Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
ix
Inside the System Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
PowerSupply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Floppy Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Hard Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Optical Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Know Your Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Chapter 3 Microprocessors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Historical/Conceptual 55
CPU Core Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 The Man in the Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Back to the External Data Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Memory and RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Address Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Essentials 69
Modern CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 CPU Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 The Pentium CPU: The Early Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Original Pentium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Pentium Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Later Pentium-Class CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Pentium II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Pentium III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Early AMD Athlon CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
IT Technician 91
Processing and Wattage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 CPU Codenames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 AMD Athlon Thunderbird . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 AMD Duron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Intel Pentium 4 Willamette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 AMD Athlon XP (Palomino and Thoroughbred) . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood and Prescott) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 AMD Athlon XP (Thorton and Barton) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Mobile Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Intel Xeon Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Early 64-Bit CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Dual-Core CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Intel Core〞Goodbye, Pentium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Installing CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Why Replace a CPU? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Determining the Right CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Buying a CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Preparing to Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Inserting a PGA-Type CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Testing Your New CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 The Art of Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Know Your CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Beyond A+ 116
Overclocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Chapter 4 RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Historical/Conceptual 122
Understanding DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Organizing DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Practical DRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 DRAM Sticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Current RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Consumer RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Essentials 129
Types of RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 RDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 DDR SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 DDR2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 RAM Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Working with RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Do You Need RAM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Getting the Right RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Installing DIMMs and RIMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Installing SO-DIMMs in Laptops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
IT Technician 146
Troubleshooting RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Testing RAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
xii
Beyond A+ 149
The Next Generations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Chapter 5 BIOS and CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Historical/Conceptual 155
We Need to Talk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Talking to the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Essentials 160
CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Updating CMOS: The Setup Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 A Quick Tour Through a Typical CMOS Setup Program . . . . . . 166 BIOS and Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Option ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 BIOS, BIOS, Everywhere! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
IT Technician 175
Power-On Self Test (POST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Before and During the Video Test: The Beep Codes . . . . . . . . . . 175
Text Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
POST Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
The Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Care and Feeding of BIOS and CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Losing CMOS Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
Clearing CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Flashing ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Chapter Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Chapter 6 Expansion Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Historical/Conceptual 186
Structure and Function of the Expansion Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
PC Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
ISA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Essentials 191
Modern Expansion Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 False Starts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 PCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 System Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 I/O Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Interrupt Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 COM and LPT Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Direct Memory Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Memory Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Installing Expansion Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Step 1: Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Step 2: Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Step 3: Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Step 4: Verify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
IT Technician 217
Troubleshooting Expansion Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Device Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Chapter 7 Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Historical/Conceptual 224
How Motherboards Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Form Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Essentials 227
Chipset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Motherboard Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Upgrading and Installing Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
IT Technician 239
Choosing the Motherboard and Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Installing the Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Wires, Wires, Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Troubleshooting Motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Beyond A+ 249
Shuttle Form Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Mini-ITX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Chapter 8 Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Historical/Conceptual 256
Understanding Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Essentials 257
Powering the PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Supplying AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Supplying DC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
xiv
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Installing, Maintaining, and Troubleshooting Power Supplies . . . . . . 276 Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 When Power Supplies Die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Fuses and Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Beyond A+ 287
It Glows! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Modular Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Rail Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Chapter 9 Hard Drive Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Historical/Conceptual 294
How Hard Drives Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Data Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Moving the Arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Essentials 301
ATA〞The King . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 ATA-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 ATA-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 ATA-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 ATA-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 INT13 Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 ATA-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 ATA-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 ATA-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 SCSI: Still Around . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 SCSI Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 SCSI IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Protecting Data with RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Implementing RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Hardware versus Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Personal RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Managing Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 The Future Is RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Connecting Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Choosing Your Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Jumpers and Cabling on PATA Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Cabling SATA Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Connecting SCSI Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 BIOS Support: Configuring CMOS and Installing Drivers . . . . . . . . . . 334 Configuring Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Autodetection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Boot Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Device Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Troubleshooting Hard Drive Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Beyond A+ 339
Spindle (or Rotational) Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Chapter 10 Implementing Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Historical/Conceptual 343
Hard Drive Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Basic Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Dynamic Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 When to Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Hard Drive Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 File Systems in Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 FAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 FAT32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 NTFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 The Partitioning and Formatting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Bootable Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Partitioning and Formatting with the Windows Installation CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 Partitions and Drive Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Disk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Dynamic Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Mount Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Formatting a Partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 Maintaining and Troubleshooting Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Beyond A+ 407
Third-Party Partition Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
xvi
Chapter 11 Removable Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Historical/Conceptual 414
Floppy Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Floppy Drive Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
Essentials 416
Installing Floppy Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 USB Thumb Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 Flash Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 Optical Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 CD-Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 DVD-Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436 Installing Optical Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
IT Technician 449
Troubleshooting Removable Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Floppy Drive Maintenance and Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Troubleshooting Optical Drives and Discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Beyond A+ 457
Color Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
High-Definition Optical Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Chapter 12 Installing and Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Historical/Conceptual 461
Functions of the Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 Operating System Traits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Communicating with Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Creating a User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 Accessing and Supporting Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465 Organizing and Manipulating Programs and Data . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Essentials 466
Today*s Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466 Installing/Upgrading Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Preparing for Installation or Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Performing the Installation or Upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 Post-Installation Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Installing or Upgrading to Windows 2000 Professional . . . . . . 483 Installing or Upgrading to Windows XP Professional . . . . . . . . 484 Upgrading Issues for Windows 2000 and Windows XP . . . . . . . 487 The Windows 2000/XP Clean Install Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Automating the Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 Troubleshooting Installation Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Text Mode Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Graphical Mode Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Lockups During Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 No Installation Is Perfect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Chapter 13 Understanding Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Windows Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 Tech Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 OS Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550 Features and Characteristics of Windows 2000/XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 OS Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 NT File System (NTFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 The Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 System Partition Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 Windows Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Windows XP Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 Windows XP Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 Windows XP Media Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 Windows 64-Bit Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Beyond A+ 580
Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Windows Mobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Windows XP Tablet PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Windows Embedded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Chapter 14 Working with the Command-Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585 Historical/Conceptual 586
IT Technician 586
Deciphering the Command-Line Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Accessing the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 The Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 Filenames and File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 Drives and Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 Mastering Fundamental Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Structure: Syntax and Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 DIR Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 Directories: The CD Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 Moving Between Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 Making Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 Removing Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 Running a Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600 Working with Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 Wildcards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 Renaming Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 Deleting Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 Copying and Moving Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 Working with Batch Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Beyond A+ 616
Using Special Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616 Compact and Cipher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
Chapter 15 Maintaining and Troubleshooting Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Maintaining Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625 Patches, Updates, and Service Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626 Managing User Accounts and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629 Error-Checking and Disk Defragmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 Temporary File Management with Disk Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 Registry Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 Security: Spyware/Anti-Virus/Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Optimizing Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Installing and Removing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 Installing/Optimizing a Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 Resource Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 Preparing for Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Installing Recovery Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 Troubleshooting Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 Failure to Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669 Failure to Load the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672 Troubleshooting Tools in the GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Chaptre 16 Input/Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Supporting Common I/O Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 USB Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689 FireWire Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 General Port Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 Common I/O Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 702 Mice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705 Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 Digital Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 714 Web Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717 Specialty I/O Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 Biometric Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720 Bar Code Readers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 Touch Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
Chapter 17 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727 Video Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 CRT Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728 Essentials 729
LCD Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 Projectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 Common Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744 PowerConservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 Video Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749 Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753 Motherboard Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 Graphics Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Video Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 760 Installing and Configuring Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 761 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 Working with Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
IT Technician 772
3-D Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Troubleshooting Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Troubleshooting Video Cards/Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Troubleshooting Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 Common Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
Beyond A+ 784
Video and CMOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 TV and PCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
xx
Chapter 18 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Historical/Conceptual 793
How Sound Works in a PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793 Sound-Capture Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 Recorded Sound Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 Playing Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796 Other File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798 Streaming Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
Essentials 799
Getting the Right Sound Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Processor Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Speaker Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 Recording Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 Extra Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 Audio Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803 Speakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 Installing Sound in a Windows System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 Physical Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 Installing Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810 Installing Sound Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811 Installing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 815
IT Technician 816
Troubleshooting Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816 Hardware Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816 Configuration Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 817 Application Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
Beyond A+ 818
Sound Card Benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
Chapter 19 Portable Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 Essentials 823
Portable Computing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823 LCD Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824 Desktop Replacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 Desktop Extenders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827 Ultralights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828 PDAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828 Tablet PCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 830
Portable Computer Device Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835
IT Technician 837
Enhance and Upgrade the Portable PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 PC Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 837 Limited-function Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 841 General-purpose Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842 The Modular Laptop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844 Managing and Maintaining Portables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850 Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851 PowerManagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854 Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858 Protect the Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859 Troubleshooting Portable Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861
Beyond A+ 862
Centrino Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
Origami〞Ultra-Mobile PCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
Chapter 20 Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867 Essentials 867
Printer Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867 Impact Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867 Inkjet Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869 Dye-Sublimation Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871 Thermal Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 Laser Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872 Solid Ink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876 Printer Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877 Printer Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878
IT Technician 881
The Laser Printing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881 The Physical Side of the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882 The Electronic Side of the Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884 Installing a Printer in Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 Setting Up Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887 Optimizing Print Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 Troubleshooting Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 General Troubleshooting Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890 Troubleshooting Dot-Matrix Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894 Troubleshooting Inkjet Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895 Troubleshooting Laser Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
xxii
Beyond A+ 901
DOT4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
Chapter 21 Local Area Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905 Historical-Conceptual 905
Networking Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
Essentials 908
Packets/Frames and NICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 908 Coaxial Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 910 UTP Ethernet (10/100/100BaseT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 916 Fiber Optic Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922 Token Ring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 924 Parallel/Serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927 FireWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927 USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927
IT Technician 928
Network Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 Network Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935 Client Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936 Server Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Installing and Configuring a Wired Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937 Installing a NIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Configuring a Network Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Configuring Simple Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939 Configuring TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942 Sharing and Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 956
Essentials 962
Installing and Configuring a Wireless Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962 Wireless Networking Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
IT Technician 966
Wireless Networking Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966 Wireless Network Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967 Wireless Networking Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969 Speed and Range Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970 Wireless Networking Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 971 Configuring Wireless Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977 Troubleshooting Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985 Verify the Symptom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986 When Did It Happen? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
What Has Changed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
Check the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
Reproducing the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
Isolating the Symptom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 988
Separating Hardware from Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989
Make the Fix and Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990
OSI Seven-Layer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990
Mike*s Four-Layer Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
Chapter 22 The Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Historical/Conceptual 997
Understanding the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997 Internet Tiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 TCP/IP〞The Common Language of the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Internet Service Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000 Connection Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Essentials 1002
Connecting to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 Dial-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012 Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014 Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015 Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 Internet Connection Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016 The Windows XP Internet Connection Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018 Internet Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019 The World Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019 E-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026 Newsgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028 File Transfer Protocol (FTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029 Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1031 Voice over IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1032 Terminal Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1032
Beyond A+ 1036
Online Gaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036 Chatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037 File Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041
xxiv
Chapter 23 Computer Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
Analyzing the Threat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
Historical/Conceptual 1044
Unauthorized Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 Data Destruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 Administrative Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044 System Crash/Hardware Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045 Virus/Spyware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
Essentials 1045
Local Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
What to Back Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
Migrating and Retiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049 IT Technician 1051
Social Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053
Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056
User Account Control Through Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057
Security Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059
Malicious Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
Firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074
Wireless Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079
Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079
Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1084
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085
Chapter 24 The Complete PC Tech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087 Essentials 1087
How Computers Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087 Computing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 Dealing with Customers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097 Eliciting Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098 Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 Respect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099 Assertiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100 Troubleshooting Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Tech Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101 Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Appendix A Mapping to the CompTIA A+ Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109
CompTIA A+ Essentials Objectives Map  pass4sure jk0012 PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109 CompTIA A+ 220-602 (IT Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . . . . . . . . 1113 CompTIA A+ 220-603 (Help Desk Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . 1116 CompTIA A+ 220-604 (Depot Technician) Objectives Map . . . . . . . . 1118
Appendix B About the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121 Installing and Running Total Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121 About Total Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 Accessing the Glossary, eBook, CompTIA A+ Acronyms List, and CompTIA A+ Exam Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 Shareware and Freeware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 LearnKey Online Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122 Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123 LearnKey Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125

9A0-327 Homeless in Vancouver: Killing Adobe Flash, one smart TV at a time

9A0-327

Not a week goes by that I don’t see the discarded cardboard carapaces of several newly-purchased big screen 1Z0-108 smart TVs in the back alleys of the Fairview neighbourhood.

The sight always makes me smile because, near 9A0-327 as I can tell, every smart TV in a home means one more Internet device that is not running Adobe’s aged and dangerously bug-prone Flash Player. Yay!

What it means for a TV to be “smart”

9a0-327
A Vzeo E-series box: a smart TV that doesn’t allow you to really browse the web.

At the lower end of the smart TV spectrum are what I think of more as big-screen Internet of Things devices that get cable and allow users to access a small bit 1Z0-147 of the web through pre-installed apps–as in, a YouTube app, a Netflix app, a Facebook app and so on. I would put the Vizio E-Series 65″ LED in this class; it’s a good value big screen TV apparently and I see that a lot of Fairview residents are 1Z0-228 buying it, but it’s not a fully capable web browsing device.

Higher end Smart TVs offer both Internet apps as well as direct access to the World Wide Web via a web browser, along with oodles of external connectivity options.

Smart TVs across the board seem to have little internal 1Z0-465 storage and they all run some form of the Linux operating system.

And though you would be hard-pressed to get one into your pocket, all smart TVs are designed–hardware and software-wise 1Z0-525 along the lines of mobile devices, making them, in many respects, the largest non-touchscreen tablets that money can buy.

Being both mobile- and Linux-based means that smart TVs cannot play web-based Flash video–because Adobe gave up on the Flash Player for Android and iOS mobile browsers 1Z0-567 five years ago and for Linux four years ago.

Desktops with Flash was then, and smart TVs without it are now

9A0-327
Trying to stream Flash-based video on a smart TV isn’t such a smart idea.

Back in November 2011, Adobe announced that it would henceforth only build Flash functionality into mobile apps using Adobe Air, meaning that it was abandoning the standalone Flash Player for mobile web 1Z0-580 browsers.

HTML 5 was too entrenched on mobile platforms, said Adobe. That the Flash Player for mobile (abandoned at version 11.1.102.59) was also a resource hog that performed poorly in the power-constrained mobile environment, Adobe 1Z0-593 neglected to say.

In 2012, Adobe also pulled the plug on future versions of the Flash Player for Linux, outside of the special “Pepper” version built by Google into its Chrome web browser for the 1Z0-850 desktop.

Since 2012 Adobe has only solo-developed the Flash Player for the Windows and Macintosh desktop operating systems.

This is all well and good, a great many people are aware that Flash doesn’t come with Android or iOS devices anymore and many of the biggest 9a0-327 dump embedded video services on the Internet—such as YouTube, Facebook and Netflix—have dropped the need for the Flash Player altogether.